Learn to write advertising, choose where to advertise and promote; and how to set up and run an effective PR campaign.

There are ten lessons in this course, each requiring about 10-12 hours work by the student. This course is designed as a program to help you firstly understand the marketing world; then assist you in making decisions and developing skills in marketing.

  • Learn how to promote and sell better
  • Sell more, improve your marketing push, increase profitability
  • Get a job, advance a career, improve a business

Advertising and promotions are essential to business success. Whether you are a business owner, supervisor or retail store assistant, this course can help you improve the profitability of your business or a business department. You will learn shop display techniques, writing effective advertisements, sales techniques and much much more.



1. Analysing the Market
  • Scope and nature of Promotions and Marketing,
  • Role of Marketing,
  • Approaches to Marketing (The Production Approach: 1820sto 1910s,
  • The Sales Approach: 1920s to 1960s,
  • The Marketing Approach: Stage One - 1960s to 1980s,
  • The Marketing Approach: Stage Two - 1980s to Present),
  • Goals of Marketing,
  • What makes people buy (Attitude, Defining attitudes,
  • How attitudes form, Changing attitudes)
  • Practical Applications (Strengthen an existing attitude, Develop a change in attitude, Increase involvement, Focus on changing several different attitudes toward a product, Message Evaluation & Selection, Message execution, What words sell, Deciding to Buy, Rational Decisions, Heuristic Procedures,
  • Decision Making Process (Recognising a Problem, Seeking Information, Evaluating Alternatives, Purchase Processes),
  • Understanding Communication (Types, Methods, Channels, etc),
  • Managing the Marketing Process (Organising, Analysing, Select Targets, Develop the Mix, Managing the marketing Effort),
  • Market Research (Types of research, Gathering data),
  • Managing the Marketing Plan

2. Target Marketing

  • The Process of Identifying a Target Market,
  • Micro marketing, Developing a Marketing Plan,
  • Organising a Planning Process,
  • Reviewing (Mission statement, Goals & Objectives),
  • Establishing Market Objectives,
  • Increasing Market Share,
  • Expanding Product Mix,
  • Broadening Geographic Range,
  • Expansion through Export,
  • Maximising Customer Service,
  • Develop Objective Focussed Strategies,
  • Increasing Market Share,
  • Analysing Opportunities,
  • External Influences (General economy, Government, Overseas, Demographics, Technology, Changing customer values, Competitor activity, Alternative marketing methods);
  • Internal Influences (Resources, Market Share, Product characteristics, Advertising, Price, Financial capacity, Innovative potential);
  • Selecting Target Markets -Market Segmentation,
  • Mass Marketing,
  • Concentrated or Niche Markets,
  • Differentiated Markets;
  • Physical Basis for Segmentation,
  • Behavioural basis for Segmentation,
  • Developing a Marketing Mix (Product, Price, Promotion, Distribution),
  • Brand Names, Symbols, Logos, Packaging, Positioning and Image,
  • Providing warranties;
  • Price (Pricing Objectives, Pricing Methods, Cost-Price margin, Competition based Pricing, List and Discount Pricing)

3. Display and Display Techniques

  • Channels of Distribution,
  • Market Coverage (Intensive, Selective, Exclusive Distribution), Warehousing, Physical Distribution and Coverage, Inventory Control, Determining Emphasis within Marketing Mix, Product Life Cycle, Product Strategy, Shop Layout, Fixtures and Fittings, Space Available, Displaying Products for Sale, What Sells Best, Spacing, Quantity Displayed, Merchandising Suggestions, Stock Control, Merchandising Program, Signs, Signposting.

4. Advertising and Promotions Strategy

  • Promotional Element,
  • Publicity, Public Relations,
  • Forms of Advertising,
  • Sales Promotion,
  • Personal Selling Method,
  • Promotion Principles,
  • Scope of PR,
  • Steps in Designing a PR Strategy (Set Advertising Objectives, Decide Advertising Budget, Decide Advertising Message, Decide Media to Use, Evaluate Advertising Effectiveness).

5. New Product Development

  • Product Line Decisions,
  • New Products,
  • Tracking Trends,
  • Knowing Your Customers,
  • Packaging,
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis,
  • Financial Forecasting,
  • Project Revenues and Costs,
  • Expenditure Breakdown,
  • Revenue Breakdown.

6. Sales Techniques

  • Promotion and Sales,
  • Steps in the Sales Order,
  • Understanding Persuasion,
  • Materials of Persuasion (Know the Audience, Subject and Yourself, Influencing Opponents, Influencing Neutrals, Handling Criticism, Logical Persuasion);
  • Questioning,
  • Sales Staff Training,
  • Theory of Helping,
  • Strategies (Traditional Approach, Task Approach),
  • Common Strategies for Staff Training and Teaching

7. Writing Advertisement

  • Purpose of Advertising,
  • Writing an Effective Advertisement,
  • Structure of an Ad,
  • Importance of Colour and Size,
  • Advertisement Creation (Develop Product Awareness, Provide Information, Develop a Desire, Develop Conviction, Differentiate Brand, Make a Decision),
  • The Advertising Message,
  • Message Generation,
  • Combining Rewards and Experiences to design a message,
  • Delivering the Message,
  • Advertisement Creation Checklist,
  • Verification and Proofing

8. Electronic Marketing -Telephone & Email

  • Telephone Manner,
  • Managing an Unmanned Phone,
  • Internet Promotions ( Larger audience, Lower Conversion Factor, Different Etiquette, Different Cost Structures, etc),
  • Netiquitte, Ways of Using Web, Web sites, Site Construction, Site Use, Emails

9. Direct Mailing

  • Types of Direct Mailing (The Direct, The Informative. The Reminder, The Utility);
  • Advantages, Disadvantages, Appropriateness

10. Exhibitions & Shows

  • Types of Exhibitions,
  • Judging it's Value,
  • What can go Wrong,
  • Catering for People Overload,
  • Measuring Success,
  • Organising an Event,
  • Planning a Display

Each lesson requires about 10-12 hours work by the student. This course is designed as a program to, first, help you understand the marketing world, then, to assist you in making decisions and developing skills in marketing. Emphasis is placed on profitability and efficiency!


Duration: 100 hours


Advertising is a paid, non-personal message communicated through a mass medium. Its purpose is to inform, persuade and remind.

Advertising is one of the main forms of promotion used to attract potential customers by creating a demand for the product, informing and communicating essential information. It can be classified into three broad groups, depending on its purpose and message: selective or brand advertising; institutional advertising; or primary demand advertising.

Selective or brand advertising. This is used to sell a particular brand of a product and is the most common form of advertising. Business use brand advertising to persuade consumers of the benefits of their products in order to entice the consumer to purchase their product.

Institutional advertising. This is used to enhance the image or reputation of a business rather than to sell a particular product.

Primary demand advertising. This type of advertising attempts to increase the total consumption of a product without distinguishing between brands. These advertisements promote broad product categories. For example, 'trim pork' and milk campaigns. This sort of advertising is often used with overall consumption of a product begins to decline.

Advertising media refers to the many forms of communications used to reach an audience. There are four main types of advertising media: television, radio, newspapers and magazines.

The type of medium selected, will depend on factors such as cost and the advertising budget, the geographic distribution of the product, advertising activities of competitors, expected response rate and the target market. Large businesses often decide to use more than one method so as to reach as large an audience as possible. A business may decide to advertise continuously or in cycles, and should analyse the response to each advertising strategy to determine what is most effective for their product.


1st Set the Advertising Objectives

Objectives should be based upon prior decisions made about the target market, marketing position and marketing mix. The marketing position and mix will define the task that advertising should fulfill.

Both communication and sales objectives may need to be set as part of this stage in developing a strategy. This process is sometimes thought of as converting advertising objectives into measurable goals. An advertising goal is a specific communication task and an achievement level that needs to be accomplished, for example:

In a market place of 8 million people who drive motor cars

  • Over the space of 1 year
  • an extra 10% of the population
  • become aware of the existence of a particular brand of motor oil
  • and become aware of the superior quality of that motor oil.

Advertising objectives can generally be classified into one of three categories:

1. Objectives that Inform


  • Raising awareness that a product exists
  • Describing services offered
  • Suggesting new product applications

2. Objectives that Persuade


  • Developing a preference for a particular brand
  • Encouraging someone to change their negative attitude toward a particular product
  • Persuading a buyer to sign a contract and pay a deposit

3. Objectives that Remind


  • Reminding buyers where a product is available
  • Reminding buyers of the importance of quality
  • Reminding buyers of the price advantage in paying in full rather than on terms.

The choice of objectives should depend upon what the product is, and its position in a market place. If it is an old established product with decreasing usage, the aim should obviously be to stimulate interest. If it is however a new product that is unknown, the aim may be simply to raise awareness.

2nd Decide on the advertising budget

The challenge is to determine the appropriate amount to spend, in order to achieve the advertising/promotion goals. The advertising budget must be affordable. Advertising expenditure is generally treated as a current expense; but in actual effect, part of what is spent is an investment (n that it creates good will), because the full results may not be seen until a year or many years after the initial advertising.

3rd Decide on the Advertising Message

You need to generate message ideas, then evaluate and select appropriate ideas to use and finally execute those ideas. The development of a broad advertising message comes with the development of the product concept. When we conceive a new product, a general advertising message should be developed at the same time. At this early stage, the product may be modified to fit the advertising and the advertising message may be modified to fit the product.

Beyond the broad advertising message, there is always room for innovation and variation.

Over a period of time, the consumer's preferences may change, requiring a change of focus in the advertising message. Example: A product that is both environmentally friendly, and relatively inexpensive, may at first be sold with the main focus on the cost, but over time, the environmental consideration may become more important than cost to the consumer.


4th Decide on the Media to Use

There are several steps in deciding on the media.

1st Decide on the reach, frequency and impact

2nd Choose from among the alternatives (eg. Newspapers, magazines, direct mail, radio, web sites, etc).

3rd Select specific media vehicles - if you have decided on newspapers, now you must decide, which newspaper.

4th Decide on Media Timing -when do you run an advert.

5th Decide on Geographical Media Allocation. Some media will present you with alternatives (eg. pay a little and go to the local radio station, or pay a lot and go to the whole network).


Beware: Selling Advertising can be a cut throat business.

If you are in the advertising game, to sell adverts you may need to be either very smart and organised; or ruthless and verging on unethical. If you are buying adverts, you need to be strong willed, and focused on what you are doing, to avoid being talked into adverts that may not be the best for you.


5th Evaluate Advertising Effectiveness

Keep evaluating the success of advertising in terms of both response rates and conversion rates.

Response rate refers to the number of people who contact you for every unit of money spent (e.g. contacts per dollar). Conversion rate refers to the amount of business you achieve for each response; or each unit of money spent on advertising (e.g. dollars of sales per inquiry; percent of inquiries that make a purchase, or dollars of sales per dollar spent on advertising)

By calculating rates such as those above for each place you advertise, you will maintain an awareness of the cost benefit derived from the advertising investment; and the advertising program can be adjusted accordingly.


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